A BRIDGE TOO FAR FOR GLENTIES

first_imgDonegal County Council is to explore options to reinstate a crossing at the Mulantiboyle Bridge in Glenties which collapsed more than three years ago.Cllr Marie Therese GallagherThe costings for the bridge if more than €600,000.Cllr Marie Therese Gallagher has welcomed plans to explore EU funding options to re-instate the bridge. Cllr Gallagher said “The estimated costs to re-instate this bridge is over €600,000, this seems to be to be an astronomical amount of money for a project of this size.“I have asked the council to investigate alternative sources of funding to have this bridge re-instated, and I have received a commitment from Council that all avenues will be investigated, in the meantime I have asked that a costing be done to instate a bailey bridge, like what has been installed on the Fintown-Glenfin road.“I have been assured that this will be done, and am hopeful that this measure if accepted by Council will allow access through this route for the people of Glenties.”She added that it is unacceptable that this bridge has been down for over three years, and a solution has to be found to this situation without delay.  A BRIDGE TOO FAR FOR GLENTIES was last modified: November 27th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Cllr Marie Therese GallagherGlentiesMulintaboyle Bridgelast_img read more

Claim of New Antifreeze Gene by Natural Selection Melts Under Analysis

first_imgA biochemist examines imaginative claims about natural selection creating a new gene.Did a New Gene Arise by Darwinian Selection?by Dr Ross Anderson*Dr. Anderson critiques a paper by Zhuang et al., “Molecular mechanism and history of non-sense to sense evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein gene in northern gadids” (PNAS, 13 Feb 2019), which claims a new antifreeze gene in Arctic cod arose by ‘fortuitous’ chance events and natural selection.“This paper is a concrete dissection of the process of a de novo gene birth that has conferred a vital adaptive function directly linked to natural selection.”Summary: The authors report here the putative assembly (evolution) of a gene encoding an antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) in cod fish. Comparing DNA sequences of AFGP-producing gadids with sequences from non-AGFP-producing gadids the authors believe they have identified a sequence in the non-AFGP gadids that doesn’t appear to code for a protein, but with a little imagination can be made into a gene which encodes an AFGP.Starting with Something, Not NothingSo, let’s see, here we have a fully formed, functional AFGP gene. As such it has all the components necessary for expression and regulation. We want to try and understand just how this gene could have arisen from a non-coding sequence; i.e., how it arose de novo. The authors recognize that most genes supposedly have arisen from pre-existing genes, but that new genes from non-coding sequences is rare, but theoretically possible. Reported here is a possible example of such a de novo gene.Examination of extant AFGPs reveals that they are typically composed of a short sequence of amino acids repeated many times; e.g., the tripeptide, Thr-Ala-Ala (threonine, alanine, alanine), repeated n times. Some of the Thr residues have been glycosylated; i.e., they have sugars added to a side-chain.The paper is an interesting read in that it reveals the very creative imagination of some scientists.Proteins are coded by triplet codons of DNA “letters” A, C, T, and G. (Illustra Media)Let’s use our creative imagination and see if we can construct a gene that encodes such a protein. First, we find some DNA sequences in gadids that are somewhat similar, but do not encode a protein; they are non-coding sequences. Compare these sequences with the target AFGP gene sequence and see what is needed to make these non-coding sequences match the target AFGP sequence. We notice that what we need is for the coding region to encode a polyprotein composed of the repeated amino acid sequence Thr-Ala-Ala. We find the DNA sequence GCA, which is an Ala codon, repeated 9 times to generate a 27-nucleotide (nt) sequence. In the target AFGP gene the Thr-Ala-Ala repeat is found bounded by two 27-nt (nucleotide) repeats. So, let’s propose that the sequence of 27 nucleotides (GCA repeated 9 times) in the “ancestral” sequence underwent a chance duplication event to generate two 27-nt repeats. Then propose a second chance duplication event to generate four such repeats.Blindly Aiming for the TargetExamination of the target AFGP amino acid sequence shows we need a Thr codon in the midst of the 27-nt repeats. Suppose we substitute an ‘A’ for the ‘G’ in one of the GCA sequences. The new 9-nt sequence would then read ACAGCAGCA which, when translated, would generate the required Thr-Ala-Ala sequence. Now that we have the appropriate coding sequence, we need to have it repeated as the target amino acid sequence, Thr-Ala-Ala, is repeated many times. So, let’s propose that this new 9-nt sequence is also duplicated many times.We also notice that in the functional AFGP gene there are scattered arginine and glutamine codons. Presumably when translated these will provide signals for a protease to hydrolyze the polypeptide into many shorter peptides which are the antifreeze proteins. To generate these two amino acid codons in a sea of GCA codons would require at a minimum two strategically placed substitutions in a GCA codon to generate either an arginine codon or a glutamine codon. The authors provide no explanation for how these substitutions nicely provide codons for only these two amino acids when codons for many other amino acids could be generated more easily with just one substitution. The magic is all done by chance and natural selection in six fortuitous steps. Here is the summary diagram of their model from the paper:Fig. 4Evolutionary mechanism of the gadid AFGP gene from noncoding DNA. The color codes of the sequence components follow Fig. 1. (A) The ancestral noncoding DNA contained latent signal peptide-coding exons with a 5′ Kozak motif, adjacent to a duplication-prone 27-nt GCA-rich sequence. (B) The 27-nt GCA(Ala)-rich sequence duplicated forming four tandem copies. (C) A 9-nt in the midst of the four 27-nt duplicates became the three codons for one AFGP Thr-Ala-Ala unit and underwent microsatellitelike duplication forming a proto-ORF. A proximal upstream regulatory region acquired through a putative translocation event. (E) A 1-nt frameshift led to a contiguous SP, a propeptide, and a Thr-Ala-Ala-like cds in a read-through ORF [open reading frame]. (F) Intragenic (Thr-Ala-Ala)n cds amplification, fulfilling the antifreeze function under natural selection.Signalling the BlindNow we have essentially constructed the coding region, but we’re not finished yet. All AFGPs are secreted proteins and as such require that a signal peptide sequence be attached to the coding region. The DNA sequence which encodes this signal has to be added to our coding sequence. It just so happens that the “ancestral” sequence has such a sequence in just the correct place with respect to the coding region. Only one problem, there is a single nucleotide which does not allow the signal sequence to be in the proper reading frame to the coding region. Let’s propose that this one nucleotide was deleted causing a reading frame-shift which then directly linked the signal sequence with the coding sequence. Interestingly, the authors indicate that DNA region encoding the signal sequence somehow develops an intron-exon structure, but no explanation is given.Promoting Chance to Commander of the FortuitousWe’re still not finished. We need a promoter region added to our new gene. Without a proper promoter, a gene will not be transcribed into an mRNA, and thus no protein product. The authors propose that “fortuitously”, a translocation event took place and the promoter from another gene was added in the exact location where needed. This proposed translocation also provided a 5′-untranslated region (UTR) in perfect alignment with the signal sequence as to save the reading frame generated earlier.All functional AFGP genes also have a 3′-UTR. One species of gadid lacks a 3′-UTR and is a putative pseudogene, suggesting that sequences in the 3′-UTR are necessary for expression. In the paper the authors add a 3′-UTR, but do not explain where it came from as it is not found in the putative ancestral sequence.Imaginative Storytelling Masquerading as ScienceThe paper is an interesting read in that it reveals the very creative imagination of some scientists. It is likened to examining a functioning car noting was is needed and going to a junkyard and auto parts store looking for all the pieces that could be cobbled together to make another functional car.Now, sequence comparisons can provide valuable information, however, when trying to construct an evolutionary story of how a gene might have arisen de novo, one must bear in mind that all is hypothetical as there is no real way to experimentally test the conclusions of such hypothesizing. In short, it amounts to just storytelling.The authors may have been able to come up with a more realistic explanation for the loss of function rather than try to explain a gain in function, but that would not have been as interesting or as much fun, and it certainly would not have been published.Note: for those interested in this subject, Dr. Cornelius Hunter, another biochemist, has critiqued the PNAS paper at Evolution News & Science Today. A related, but different claim about gene evolution from 2011 was analyzed by Shaun Doyle in the Journal of Creation (CMI).*About the authorDr. Anderson’s expertise is in the area of biochemistry and molecular biology. He has taught Biochemistry and helped to direct research projects of graduate and medical students at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Dr. Anderson was a post-doctoral researcher in the Molecular Genetics Division of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Houston Neurosensory Center.Dr. Anderson was a member of both the undergraduate and graduate faculty at Lamar University, Beaumont, TX. There he taught and directed the research activities of undergraduates and Masters of Science degree candidates in Biology. Currently he is professor of biochemistry at The Master’s University in southern California.Dr. Anderson’s research interests include structure-function studies of DNA polymerizing enzymes and the synthesis and expression of synthetic human genes in bacterial hosts. He has authored or co-authored several publications in major, peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and Sigma Xi Research Society.It’s an honor to have Dr Ross Anderson contribute this article to Creation-Evolution Headlines. Now, we end with a pictorial summary of Darwinian evolution by J. Beverly Greene. 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French Government Chooses Mozilla To Replace IBM and Microsoft For 130,000 Desktop PC’s

first_imgalex williams Massive Non-Desk Workforce is an Opportunity fo… 3 Areas of Your Business that Need Tech Now IT + Project Management: A Love Affair The French Government’s public finance department will switch 130,000 desktop PC’s to Mozilla’s email and calendar applications. Mozilla’s Thunderbird email service, Lightning Calendar and an open-source groupware will replace IBM Lotus Notes and Microsoft Office.The move signals how more government agencies from around the world are dropping enterprise accounts with major vendors to cut down on costs and get better license agreements.They are turning to open-source providers and companies like Google that can offer email and services such as Google Docs.01net, a French IT news site, originally broke the news about the Mozilla win. The decision to go with Mozilla came after the Directorate General of Public Finance (DGPF) merged with the Directorate General of Taxes (DGI) and the Directorate General of Public Accountancy (DGCP). Each has their own email and licenses for Lotus Notes and Microsoft Outlook.The merger provided the opportunity to save money and better manage the licenses.OBM is the other player in this story. Linagora makes the open-source groupware that will be used by DGPF.The tax authority is one of several French agencies using OBM. More than 600,000 French employees use the application.The French Government’s decision to go open-source follows the city of Los Angeles decision this week to adopt Google Apps over Microsoft. Again, the win has almost everything to do with cost. The city will pay $7.25 million for the service.About 30,000 city employees will use Gmail and have access to Google Docs.center_img Tags:#enterprise#news Related Posts Cognitive Automation is the Immediate Future of…last_img read more

Bolick tips hat off to Perez: ‘He changed the culture of Lyceum’

first_imgFilipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games PLAY LIST 01:27Filipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games00:59Sports venues to be ready in time for SEA Games00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. Read Next CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA MOST READ LATEST STORIES Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion Kris Aquino ‘pretty chill about becoming irrelevant’ Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netIn the middle of a loud Smart Araneta Coliseum during the second game in the Finals between San Beda and Lyceum, Robert Bolick and CJ Perez shared a quiet moment.Perez left the game with 36 seconds left, just before San Beda celebrated its 92-82 title-clincher, but Bolick stopped him on the way to the Lyceum bench to share some words.ADVERTISEMENT View comments ONE launches reality search for next MMA superstar in Asia “I told him ‘good job, you made it tough on me,’” said Bolick in Filipino Thursday as San Beda won its 21st seniors basketball title. “I told him ‘you know what, you did a good job, you’re the guy who came in and made an 18-0 sweep.’”“Last year, they never did it and they were very low in the standings.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutLyceum finished the Season 93 eliminations with a perfect 18-0 record after Season 92’s ninth place finish where it went 6-12 without Perez, who was still serving his residency at the school.“This year, just one guy, he changed the culture of Lyceum,” said Bolick who finished with 18 points, five rebounds, and six assists in Game 2. “I said to him ‘keep your head up because there’s nothing to be ashamed of.’” Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Bolick said it’s just unfortunate that Lyceum still hasn’t got the championship experience that could’ve saved them in crunch time.As for San Beda, championship experience is practically running through its DNA.Bolick gave the Red Lions an 89-82 lead with 50.9 seconds left with a cold-blooded triple with Lyceum’s Mike Nzesseu rising up to challenge him.“I think the only advantage we have was our Finals experience, we know how to compose, and we know how to finish games in crunch time,” said Bolick. “I’m pretty sure next year, CJ will be working hard.”ADVERTISEMENT QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohortlast_img read more

1980: Sanjay Gandhi’s unexpected death put whole nation in mourn

first_imgSetting Son Sanjay Gandhi’s death was as sudden as it was violent. It was also self-indulgent. Warned often about his dangerous aerobatics at the Delhi Flying Club, Gandhi pushed his S2-A Pitts biplane too far and too low on that fateful June day. Mrs Gandhi suddenly found herself without her,Setting SonSanjay Gandhi’s death was as sudden as it was violent. It was also self-indulgent. Warned often about his dangerous aerobatics at the Delhi Flying Club, Gandhi pushed his S2-A Pitts biplane too far and too low on that fateful June day. Mrs Gandhi suddenly found herself without her point man and airline pilot Rajiv Gandhi found himself a new career. Sanjay’s death left a big question mark over Delhi skies: would he have given Indian politics the catharsis it so badly needed? Would he have ushered in a one party dictatorship? Would he have become prime minister?The Last LeapIndia won a hockey gold medal at the 1980 Moscow Olympics, beating Spain 4-3 in the finals. This was the last gold India would ever win at the Games, in both individual and team events.”YOU CAN’T SHAKE HANDS WITH A CLENCHED FIST.”-Indira GandhiShe saw her plans pan out immaculately as the Charan Singh government collapsed even before it was able to get to its feet. With the incumbent Janata Party fractured by infighting and losing credibility before the public with its incessant anti-Indira rhetoric, all the former prime minister had to do to bring the house of cards crashing down was coin a classic line like “Choose a Government that Works” to seal the fate of her opponents.”I do not mind if today somebody regards the Bharatiya Janata Party as a Hindu party.”-L.K. ADVANI about the newly-formed BJP. Anger RightGovind Nihalani gave a hint of thingsto come with his directorial debut, Aakrosh. The film, featuring the art frat including Om Puri, Naseeruddin Shah, Smita Patil and Amrish Puri,was based on a true story that was adapted for screen by Marathiplaywright Vijay Tendulkar. The hard-hitting film established Nihalanias a no-nonsense direct.56 per cent of Indian women were in the age group of 15 to 19. The figure was higher than in many developed countries, where it was 39 per cent. This, despite India’s infant mortality rate being a high 113 per 1,000 live births.Elesewhere…Yugoslav President Tito died and the funeral ceremony saw more than 140 state delegations in Belgrade from all over the world.The Summer Olympic Games kicked off in Moscow. Sixty-six nations, including the US, Canada, West Germany and Japan, boycotted the games in protest against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.Former Beatle John Lennon died after being shot outside the Dakota Entrance of his New York City home, by Mark David Chapman, a deranged fan who had taken his autograph earlier in the day.First CutPrakash Padukone became the first Indian to win the prestigious All England Open badminton title when he beat Indonesian Liem Swie King. It was the only All England finals that King lost between 1978 and 1981. In 1981, Padukone faltered in his title defence, as King proved too good and too steady to be beaten at the pinnacle of the sport once again.Did You KnowOn June 24, just a day after the death of Sanjay Gandhi, President V.V. Giri also passed away in Chennai at the age of 85. A national mourning was declared after the twin tragedies.advertisementlast_img read more

4 days agoChelsea matchwinner Marcos Alonso: We’re getting better and better

first_imgChelsea matchwinner Marcos Alonso: We’re getting better and betterby Paul Vegas4 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveChelsea matchwinner Marcos Alonso says beating Newcastle United was the ideal way to return from the international break.Alonso expected Newcastle’s resistance and felt the home side’s patience finally paid off in the second half.”They played in a very compact style so it’s not easy to find space to attack and create chances,” he told chelseafc.com. “In the second half, we did very well and were intense in our play. That makes it hard for them to hold for 90 minutes so we were able to get the goal and the three points.”We were prepared for them to play like that. Maybe in the first half, we were lacking a bit of patience and finesse in the final third but we always had belief that the goal would come.”We have many options in the team and this is good. The team is getting better, we are improving game by game and we need to continue in this way. We are moving the ball quickly, our press is good and we are doing a good job as a team. We have clear ideas and we have to continue in this way.”Alonso felt the three Premier League points were particularly important coming in the first game back from an international break and he emphasised that hard work was paying off with results as we secured a fifth consecutive win in all competitions.”It was very important to win after the international break,” he admitted. “We played with a lot of patience and at the end we got the goal, we kept grafting and got a good reward”It’s a new season with new staff and there’s room for improvement but since the beginning we have improved a lot. We need to keep focused on each game and work hard in training.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more