The government expects this year’s economic growth to reach 2.3 percent under the baseline scenario, or to contract by 0.4 percent under the worst-case scenario as consumer spending and investment dry up amid the pandemic. Indonesia’s economy grew by 2.97 percent in the first quarter, the slowest pace in 19 years.Senior World Bank economist for Indonesia Ralph van Doorn said earlier this month that Indonesia’s economy might shrink 3.5 percent this year should the PSBB imposed by several regional administrations last for four months, according to the institution’s worst-case projection.“[The zero percent growth in the baseline scenario] assumes two months of large-scale social restrictions and takes into account a severe global economic slowdown and a very big drop in commodity prices, all of which will have an effect on Indonesia’s economy,” Van Doorn told reporters in a livestreamed news conference.Read also: Indonesia’s economy may shrink 3.5% if PSBB last for 4 months: World Bank“We expect private consumption to slow down due to job losses and a decline in consumer confidence. We also expect a slowdown in investment growth because of weaker economic activity and lower commodity prices.”Domestic consumer spending expanded just 2.84 percent year-on-year (yoy) in the first quarter from 5.01 percent during the same period last year.In the case of the global economy, the World Bank now forecasts it will shrink by 5.2 percent, the worst in 80 years, as the coronavirus pandemic inflicts a “swift and massive shock” on the economy.“This is a deeply sobering outlook, with the crisis likely to leave long-lasting scars and pose major global challenges,” said World Bank Group vice president for equitable growth, finance and institutions Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, as reported by Agence France-Presse.The depth of the crisis will drive 70 to 100 million people into extreme poverty – worse than the prior estimate of 60 million, she told reporters on Monday.Under the worst-case scenario, the global recession could mean a contraction of 8 percent, according to the report.The development lender projects a rebound for 2021 with the global economy growing by as much as 4.2 percent.“The pandemic will likely further slow potential growth in the [East Asia and Pacific] region by weakening investment and the supply chains that have been an important conduit for productivity gains over the last decade,” the report read.Read also: Indonesia’s COVID-19 budget swells but still not enough, observers say“The regional outlook will significantly deteriorate if global trade tensions re-escalate.”Advanced economies, including the United States and the eurozone, are projected to contract by 7 percent this year, while emerging market and developing economies will shrink by 2.5 percent.Meanwhile, the economy in China, Indonesia’s largest trading partner and the country where the outbreak began, is expected to grow by 1 percent this year.Topics : Indonesia’s gross domestic product (GDP) will grow at zero percent this year as the global economy is expected to see its deepest downturn since the Second World War, the World Bank has forecast.Southeast Asia’s biggest economy will see its weakest economic performance since the 1998 Asian financial crisis as the COVID-19 crisis strikes “a devastating blow to an already-fragile” global economy, the Washington, DC-based development bank said in its latest Global Economic Prospect report.“Necessary but economically costly lockdowns have become widespread and resulted in a sharp contraction of economic activity, while an abrupt tightening of global financial conditions has led to sizable capital outflows,” it said in the report. “While not contractions, Indonesia’s growth rate would nevertheless be 5.1 percentage points lower than January forecasts,” the World Bank said. “Regional commodity exporters [including Indonesia] were also hit by a steep decline in commodity prices.”Read also: Pandemic drives broadest economic collapse in 150 years: World BankThe country’s economy is projected to rebound sharply and record 4.8 percent growth in 2021, although still lower than the World Bank’s earlier projection in January.The coronavirus outbreak has disrupted economic activity throughout the archipelago as the government has called on citizens to implement physical-distancing measures to contain the spread of the coronavirus, forcing offices, factories, shops and schools to shut down. Four provinces and 11 regencies/cities have imposed large scale social restrictions (PSBB), which have forced non-essential businesses to close.
Manchester United and Arsenal target Thomas Meunier admits he’s ‘frustrated’ at Paris Saint-Germain Meunier made just his second start of the season on Tuesday (Picture: Getty)Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is keen to strengthen at left-back and though Meunier prefers to play on the right, he is adept on either side.AdvertisementAdvertisementAnd the Belgian’s hinted he would be open to leaving PSG by admitting he’s frustrated at a lack of opportunities.‘My philosophy and mentality have never changed,’ said Meunier.‘I have been saying since my first steps here at PSG that I would be devoted to the club until the end of my contract or more.‘He [Thomas Tuchel] will be able to count on me.‘Sometimes it is a bit frustrating and the happiness in football is in playing.‘But choices have been made and the coach will take his own decisions’MORE: Manchester United open contract talks with Angel Gomes amid Barcelona interest Thomas Meunier has hinted he’ll leave PSG (Picture: Getty)Paris Saint-Germain star Thomas Meunier has put Manchester United and Arsenal on red alert after admitting he’s ‘frustrated’ at his lack of game time at the club.The Belgian scored PSG’s third in their 3-0 win against Real Madrid on Tuesday but it was just his second start of the season.The full-back has lost his place under Thomas Tuchel with the German preferring youngster Colin Dagba instead.Meunier was heavily linked with a move to the Emirates last summer and he’s confirmed on a number of occasions that he is a United fan.ADVERTISEMENT Metro Sport ReporterFriday 20 Sep 2019 8:34 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link Advertisement Comment Advertisement
Chelsea will be hoping to end their disappointing run of form when they play host to Dynamo Kiev in Group G.Meanwhile, Arsenal is without injured full-back Hector Bellerin for their trip to face Group F leaders Bayern Munich.A defeat would leave the Gunners facing a massive fight to reach the knock-out stages, which could leave them having to contest the Europa League for the rest of the season. Both matches kick-off tonight at 7:45.
In the African Cup of Nations final in 1978, the late Opoku Afriyie scored a brace to hand the Black Stars of Ghana its 3rd trophy.After a difficult opening 30 minutes of the game, the match between Ghana and The Cranes of Uganda looked set to end in a goalless first half but Opoku Afriyie produced a moment of magic to hand the West African giants the lead.The prolific goal poacher caught a loose ball right in the air and hit a volley to break the deadlock against a resilient Ugandan side.Opoku Afriyie produced yet another brilliant goal to send the Accra Sports Stadium into ecstatic cheers and jeers in the 68th minute of the game.The striker caught a through pass with his head which he nodded down, run with the ball a few seconds before hitting a half volley with his right foot beyond the on-rushing Ugandan goalkeeper.His brace won Ghana’s third AFCON trophy after The Black Stars had won the 1963 and 1965 editions.He also scored the Black Stars’ first goal of the African Cup of Nations in 1978 as Ghana narrowly edged past Zambia in 2-1 win.The Asante Kotoko hitman ended the tournament with the golden boot award with three goals, tied with Segun Odegbami of Nigeria and Phillip Omondi of Uganda.Opoku Afriyie in his playing daysAfriyie, also known as Bayie later went on to win two-goal king awards in the Ghana Premier League in 1979 and 1981 and helped Kumasi Asante Kotoko win domestic laurels.Watch his flawless brace here:
AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThis A new street closure is set to take place in the city of Alpena starting this week. Beginning this Wednesday, the city will begin the reconstruction of Campbell Street from Ripley to Fifth.This section of the roadway will be closed to all traffic.Access to driveways will be limited and residents will have to park on side streets for extended periods.Signage and barricades will be present to guide traffic around the construction site, but motorists are advised to seek alternate routes.All local businesses will remain open for the remainder of this project.Additional signage will be present to direct motorists to those local businesses .The project is expected to take six weeks to complete, unless weather or construction delays occur. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThisContinue ReadingPrevious Suspect Identified in String of Vehicle Thefts Around Rogers CityNext APS Board of Education Hires New Principal, Establishes New Roles, and More
Brazil players during celebrations after qualifying to finalsRio de Janeiro, Brazil | AFP | Brazil will be looking to maintain their defensive invincibility against Peru in Sunday’s Copa America final, midfielder Casemiro says.The hosts have yet to concede a goal in the tournament, including when they thrashed Peru 5-0 in a group-stage match earlier in the competition.And keeping their goal intact will be key to lifting a ninth Copa crown, according to the Real Madrid man.“Ending the competition without conceding a goal is one of our aims,” said Casemiro.“And if we don’t concede a goal, it’s not just thanks to the guys at the back, those up front help us a lot and that makes the difference.”The woodwork also made a difference in Brazil’s 2-0 semi-final victory over arch rivals Argentina, as did referee Roddy Zambrano’s refusal to consult VAR twice when Lionel Messi and his team-mates were claiming a penalty.Sergio Aguero headed against the bar in the first half and Messi rattled the post after the break, while Brazil captain Dani Alves and midfielder Arthur both got away with blatant off-the-ball fouls inside the area on Manchester City pair Aguero and Nicolas Otamendi respectively.Argentina have complained to South American football’s governing body CONMEBOL over the refereeing in that semi-final, although to no avail as the result will not be changed.Brazil have identified the main threat to their defensive invincibility on Sunday at Rio de Janeiro’s iconic Maracana stadium: Peru forward Paolo Guerrero.He’s a player well known to Brazilian fans having spent the last seven years playing in the country.The 35-year-old scored the winning goal for Corinthians in the 2012 FIFA Club World Cup final against Chelsea.Currently playing for Internacional in Porto Alegre, he previously helped Corinthians win the Sao Paulo state championship in 2013 and Flamengo to do likewise in the Rio state championship four years later.“He’s a player who deserves special attention for everything he’s done in the past,” said center-back Marquinhos.“I know him well, I played with him for a bit at Corinthians and I’ve played against him several times for the national team.” – Respect needed –One of those was two weeks ago at the Corinthians Arena in Sao Paulo when Guerrero was kept quiet while Peru when into a defensive meltdown.They’ve bounced back spectacularly from that set-back, though, first ousting Uruguay on penalties in the quarter-final, in a match in which they were clearly second best, and then in a stunning performance to beat the outgoing champions Chile 3-0 in the last four.“It’ll be a great final, a really difficult match. We can’t think it’s already won, we have to play it,” said Casemiro.“They’ve eliminated great teams — Uruguay and Chile — we have to respect them.”It’s only the second time Peru have reached the Copa final in its 103-year history.They beat Colombia in a play-off in Caracas in 1975 after each side had won at home in a two-legged title decider.And their first title in 1939 on home soil came at the end of a single five-team tournament played in a round-robin format.“We’ve got to approach it calmly. It’s true that we’ve achieved something very important after many years,” said forward Raul Ruidiaz.“We’re aware and calm that there’s one more step to glory.“We need to play with our feet on the ground and give everything on the pitch to make it happen.”Brazil, in stark comparison, have won the Copa eight times and finished runners-up on a further 11 occasions, a record bettered only by Uruguay and Argentina.From 1997 to 2007, Brazil won four out of five editions of the Copa, missing out only in 2001 when the Selecao turned up in Colombia without leading lights such as Ronaldo, Rivaldo, Ronaldinho and Roberto Carlos — four crucial players in their World Cup success the next year.Share on: WhatsApp
By Bruce Fuhr,The Nelson Daily SportsThose in the know about the local soccer scene knew at a young age Nelson’s Mitch Popadynetz had the potential of turning into something special.The ball skills of this Nelson Youth Soccer product were ahead of the rest of the pack, the way he fed his teammates and the way he, well, just made everyone around him play a lot better.Now North American roundball experts are standing up to take notice of was Nelsonites knew for a very long time.Popadynetz, 15, has been selected to 2010-11 Super Y-League ODP National Camp.Popadynetz, who played last season in midfield for the Coquitlam Metro-Ford Soccer Club, was selected to the 1994/95 Super Y-League ODP National Camp.“I’m pretty excited on getting selected to the camp,” Popadynetz told The Nelson Daily from his Heritage City home. “I really didn’t know too much about (ODP National Camp) until I talked to some kids who had gone before. They all tell me it’s a pretty big deal.”Popadynetz, nominated in the 1994-1995 division has been identified as one of the top players in his respective birth year in the Super Y-League. This camp, slated February 2011 in Florida, gives the elite group of players the opportunity to display their soccer talent and work ethic to collegiate and national team scouts. “It’s a compliment to Mitch to be chosen from the highest youth level league in North America,” said Dave Spendlove, provincial coach and owner/operator of Soccer Quest in Nelson. “The Y League has league playing from across all of North America including Canada and only the top one to two percent of players in this league are chosen for this event.”Popadynetz played in Nelson Youth Soccer since he was a youngster, leading the U13 Selects squad to a silver medal in 2008. The Selects came within a penalty shot of capturing the B.C. Soccer Provincial B Cup.In 2009 as the Heritage City hosted the provincial tournament at the Lakeside Pitch, Popadynetz & Company was one of the early favourites to repeat as medalists. But after a promising start, U14 Selects lost its final two games to finish fourth.This season Popadynetz decided to take his show on the road to the Coquitlam Metro-Ford Soccer Club to play on the U14 squad.The 5’7”, 130-pound midfielder, tied for third on team scoring with six goals and five assists, helped Metro-Ford capture the Lower Mainland title with an 11-0-1 record. The title qualified Coquitlam for the North American United Soccer League championships in Tampa Bay, Florida, November 21-27. Metro-Ford finished with a 2-2 record, just missing the playoff round on goal differential.Popadynetz is now back in Nelson for the winter, perfecting his skills playing in the Soccer Quest Men’s Open Indoor League. In March the Grade 10 student at L.V. Rogers High School remains optimistic to return to Coquitlam for another season.As for another trip to Florida, Popadynetz is unsure. “I’m not really sure if I’m going to go back to Florida having just been there but I have to sit down (with my parents) and talk about it,” explained Popadynetz, able to play with his friends from Nelson at the 2010 B.C. Provincial B Cup in the Fraser Valley in July. “Hopefully I’ll be able to go.”For Spendlove this is an opportunity that doesn’t come along all too often, so rising Nelson star should do everything in his power to make the trek to Florida.“Scouts from the Canadian Soccer Association, America Soccer Association and top college scouts are all in attendance,” Spendlove said. “For a kid from Nelson it’s a real honor and a compliment to those who have trained and coached him over the past four years.”“(Being one of his coaches) Mitch has a great first touch, works hard and is a pleasure to coach,” Spendlove added.Which are key ingredients that make it a lot easier for this special player to firstname.lastname@example.org
By The Nelson Daily SportsIt’s been one of those seasons for the Nelson Blueliners Women’s Hockey Club.Too much drive for not enough tournaments.However, the Heritage City squad will get back on the ice Friday in the Central Okanagan at the annual Vernon Women’s Hockey Tournament.The event serves as a precursor to the 16th annual Icebreaker Tournament April 8-10 at the NDCC Arena.The three-day affair is the oldest advance-intermediate tourney still running in the Kootenays.Already confirmed to attend is the Spokane Women’s Hockey Club, Whitefish Wailers, Fernie Hustlers, Trail Chix with Sticks, Thorman Drilling out of Nelson, Vernon Vixens and the Kelowna Ice Dragons.The Blueliners enter the home tourney as the defending champs.However, for the home side to repeat the club must overcome strong teams from Trail and Fernie, which also have found their way to the winner’s circle.The tourney begins Friday with the final set for 2:45 p.m. in the NDCC Arena.Prior to the final is the consolation game at 1 email@example.com
Elaborating on Michael Behe’s refutation of “neutral evolution”by Jerry Bergman, PhDIntroductionPublished March 1, 2019Michael Behe’s new book Darwin Devolves is already number one in new releases on Amazon. To adequately summarize it would take a small book, so I will look at one small section where he reviews the attempts to salvage Darwinism, which he shows always fail. I have also added a few references to support Behe’s conclusions.The main problem in evolution, as stated by the late Harvard Biology Professor William E. Castle, is the origin “of a new organism is one of the least understood of all natural phenomena. Even to the trained biologist it is an unexplained mystery.” This statement is still true over a century later. One attempt to explain the origin of new organisms is the neutral theory of evolution. Neutral theory, along with genetic drift, natural selection and random mutation, is viewed by its supporters to be a basic mechanism of macroevolution.The Neutral Theory of EvolutionA neutral mutation is one that does not adversely affect either an organism’s phenotype nor its fitness. The neutral theory of evolution postulates the accumulation of neutral mutations, such as accidental duplication of a section of DNA that causes no harm. This occurs until a new combination produces a DNA set that, in the future, confers some specific survival advantage to the organism.The theory accepts the view that about one percent of the human DNA codes for proteins, and significant portions of the rest is evidence of, or could be due to, neutral mutations. Later,other lucky mutations could occur in the extra DNA to confer some helpful feature, perhaps a regulatory site. Repeat this scenario many times over, and small populations of bacteria could evolve larger and larger genomes with more and more sophisticated features.The theory proposes that, when environmental conditions change, some of these neutral mutations may have produced a new gene, or a set of bases, that turns out to be beneficial in the new environment. Neutral evolution theory has earned the qualified support of many leading evolutionary scientists, including Arizona State University Professor Michael Lynch, Eugene Koonin of the National Center for Biotechnology, and the late Harvard Professor Steven Jay Gould.University of Chicago evolutionist Jerry Coyne wrote, the two main neo-Darwinian evolutionary mechanisms are natural selection and the genetic variety produced by genetic drift. The theory is anti-neo-Darwinian as explained by one of the early leaders of the idea, Motoo Kimura, who wrote that insharp contrast to the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection, the neutral theory claims that the overwhelming majority of evolutionary changes at the molecular level are caused by random fixation (due to random sampling drift in finite populations) of selectively neutral (i.e., selectively equivalent) mutants under continued inputs of mutations.DNA transcription (Illustra Media)Neo-Darwinism postulates that evolution works by fine-tuning genes that give a slight survival advantage to the population so that it gradually gives the organism a progressively greater survival advantage. Evolution is not the active agent in this scenario. It is a result, not an action. The neutral theory of evolution holds that most evolutionary changes are random, and most of the variation within, and between, species is ultimately not caused by natural selection, but by random genetic drift of neutral alleles originally produced by mutations. Kimura adds that neutral theoryalso asserts that most of the genetic variability within species at the molecular level (such as protein and DNA polymorphism) are selectively neutral or very nearly neutral and that they are maintained in the species by the balance between mutational input and random extinction.He concludes that “since the origin of life on Earth, neutral evolutionary changes have predominated over Darwinian evolutionary changes” (1991, p. 367).Genetic DriftThe basis of neutral theory is genetic drift, which postulates that genomic DNA base pairs change primarily by random genetic mutations and other genetic events. Genetic drift (or allelic drift) is a change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population that does not confer an immediate selection advantage to the organism. If this event occurs in gametes, the end result is the creation of new genetic variety that may, in the future, be evolutionarily advantageous. Drift can also occur in selective alleles, and can also have a selective disadvantage.A major reason neutral theory was proposed is because “all the central assumptions of the Modern Synthesis (often called Neo-Darwinism) have been disproved.” The late geneticist Dr. Motoo Kimura proposed neutral theory in 1968 because many molecular research findings were “quite incompatible with the expectations of Neo-Darwinism.” A major problem was that evolution from one gene family type to another different family type, has never been directly documented. Furthermore, intermediate gene forms between the old, less-functional or non-functional and new, more-functional, gene by random mutations as proposed by Darwinism, is seriously problematic.Thus, neutral theory “is in sharp contrast to the traditional neo-Darwinian (i.e., the synthetic) theory of evolution, which claims that the spreading of mutants within the species in the course of evolution can occur only with the help of positive natural selection.” Neutral theory also, in contrast to Darwinism, postulates that, if selection occurs, the genes selected in the next generation are more likely to be those genes from a “lucky” few individuals, and not necessarily from those life-forms that are healthier or in some way “better.”Neutral theory supporters accept the conclusion that most mutations are slightly deleterious, but claim that, because these mutant genes are rapidly purged by natural selection, they do not make significant contributions to the variation within and between species at the molecular level. They claim that only neutral mutations, or those that are close-to-neutral, can achieve this.Sanford’s book examines the impact of mutations that are invisible to selection.In contrast to the neutral theory, much evidence now exists for the view that most mutations are not strictly neutral, but near-neutral, meaning not harmful as a single entity, but collectively accumulate, eventually causing disease or death. Aging is the most well-documented example of the accumulation of near-neutral mutations. As all animals age and die, so too does a species by the same mechanism, the accumulation of near-neutral mutations.The Junk and Duplicated DNA ProblemA major difficulty with neutral theory is the assumption that most or at least much DNA is selectively neutral based on the belief that most DNA is non-functional. As Kimura concluded, neutral theory “asserts that most intraspecific variability … is selectively neutral.” Junk DNA was assumed to be a major source of raw, genetic material that can gradually be modified by genetic drift or mutations to change into a gene that eventually becomes functional. However, the ENCODE project has documented that over 80 percent of all so-called junk DNA is actually functional, thus creating a major problem for neutral theory.Biology Professor Nathan Lents admits, even if only one mutation renders a gene broken, repair “is like a lightning strike… The odds of lightning striking the same place twice are so infinitesimally tiny as to be nonexistent…. it’s exceeding unlikely that a mutation will fix a broken gene because, following the initial damage, the gene will soon rack up additional mutations.” He adds, if over half of our genes are broken, how can we survive as a species?Credit: Illustra Media.His answer is “the majority of these pseudogenes are the result of accidental gene duplications [which] .. . explains why the disrupting mutations and subsequent death of the gene didn’t have any deleterious effects on the individual.” This is the common explanation for why most mutations do not appear to adversely affect the genome, a view that was falsified by the ENCODE findings. If one specific base change is very unlikely, the probability of massive changes that result in a new gene that proves beneficial in the future is far less likely.Another hypothesized source of new genes is gene duplication, enabling one gene to continue to carry out the function that it was originally evolved to fulfill, and the other gene to evolve into a new gene that can serve another, new function in the genome. The problems with this view have been well documented. One problem with the duplication theory is that both genes are generally equally susceptible to new mutations, likely damaging both the original and the new gene.Credit: Illustra MediaAnother problem is, if one gene is duplicated and mutations occur in the original, or the copied gene, it will not be selected until, and unless, the new protein the gene produces is functional and confers some selective advantage to the organism. Until then, if it produces a protein, the protein will often be cut up and the parts recycled. The evolution from junk DNA theory faces the same problem. To solve these problems was one reason why the neutral theory was originally proposed.The major problem with the neutral theory is the fact that a non-functional gene is not just useless, but worse. If it does not serve some beneficial function in the organism it could adversely affect the organism. The high cost of duplicating and maintaining the gene is one reason why nonfunctional genes are costly for the cell.Amino acids (Illustra Media)Another problem is mutations are not always random. Most occur in hot spots and tend to degenerate into certain bases, such as thymine, and also into a code for certain amino acids, namely those produced by six different sets of bases such as Serine, which is coded for by TCT, TCC, TCA, TCG, ATG, AGC). Both Arginine, and Leucine are also coded for by six combinations of base pairs. The result is random combinations will code for these amino acids 9.4 percent of the time and those produced by one different base set, such as Tryptophan (coded for by TGG) and Methionine (coded for by ATG) will be produced by chance only 1.6 percent of the time.Gene RegulationTo be functional, a gene requires the proper transcription factors and other regulation and control systems. A gene that has evolved by neutral theory, even if it could produce a useful product, is useless until it has the proper regularity and control mechanisms, including the spliceosome system required to remove introns. Control of both up- and down-regulation of all genes is also critical for cell and organism survival.This is illustrated by the transposition of a gene somewhere else in the genome, such next to a gene that, as a result, is improperly regulated. An example is a housekeeping gene that is transposed to a gene which causes up-regulation of cell division. Also, transposition of a gene next to a regulatory sequence that is constitutively expressed can also cause that gene to be over-expressed, resulting in cancer or other problems.DNA RepairThe DNA repair systems also work against genetic drift. It is now well-documented that “DNA is an alarmingly fragile molecule…. vulnerable to UV light and mutagenic chemicals, as well as spontaneous decay. Life has survived through the ages because enzymes inside every cell ensure that DNA remains in proper working order.” Critical to this survival are the dozen or so DNA repair mechanisms that resist genetic drift, thus working against neutral evolution theory.Gene transcription is tightly regulated by enzymes and repair mechanisms (Illustra Media)The mechanism that repairs DNA to ensure that the molecule is very stable repairs most genetic-drift changes in spite of the fact that without this repair system “under normal conditions, DNA quickly suffers enough damage to make life impossible.”The DNA repair system is highly effective except in cells that have accumulated a large amount of DNA damage, such as cancer cells. Cancer is often due to mutations of key parts of the repair system, such as p53, the so-called “guardian of the genome.” Cells that can no longer effectively repair DNA damage enter one of three possible states: 1) an irreversible state of dormancy known as senescence, 2) cell suicide known as apoptosis or programmed cell death, or 3) unregulated cell division, which can lead to a cancerous tumor. None of these conditions permits the genetic drift that allows for neutral evolution.The Molecular Clock ProblemThe main factors that motivated the neutral theory proposal include two observations that created problems for Neo-Darwinism. One was the so-called evolutionary genetic clock that was based on base substitutions of amino acids that resulted from DNA changes. Functioning of this clock requires a fairly consistent rate of change in most organisms.In large populations, if mutation rates are roughly the same for most genes, then simple, random models will predict a molecular clock. Because both of these considerations are erroneous, the molecular clock is not consistent. The major problem is that the genetic clockmakes no sense in Darwin’s world, where molecules subject to strong selection should evolve faster than others, and where organisms exposed to different changes and challenges from the environment should vary their evolutionary rates accordingly.Gould acknowledged that the “molecular clock is neither as consistent nor as regular as Kimura once hoped.”The molecular clock hypothesis depends on a constant rate of change.The refutation of the molecular clock was only one of several major blows to neutral theory. Kimura referred to the discovery that high levels of variation are maintained by many genes in the population. The problem for neutral theory was too much variation in genetic changesposes a problem for conventional Darwinism because a cost can be associated with the replacement of an ancestral gene by a new and more advantageous state of the same gene—namely, the differential death, by natural selection, of the new disfavored parental forms. This cost poses no problem if only a few old genes are being pushed out of a population at any time.Furthermore, “if hundreds of genes are being eliminated” by natural selection because they are deleterious, then any one organism likely possesses many of the deleterious mutant genes, impairing its survival chances. Consequently,the data on copious variability seemed to indicate a caldron of evolutionary activity at far too many genetic sites—too many, that is, if selection governs the changes in each varying gene. Kimura, however, recognized a simple and elegant way out of this paradox. If most of the varying forms of a gene are neutral with respect to selection, then they are drifting in frequency by the luck of the draw, invisible to natural selection because they make no difference to the organism.Today, the term neutral theory is often defined narrowly in terms of the result of sampling disparities, although this narrow definition is problematic.Neutral Theory Conflicts with DarwinismKimura’s conception of neutral theory obviously posed serious problems for Darwinism. To avoid the problem of directly challenging Darwinism, which could produce enormous opposition to his theory, Kimura does not openly deny it, but rather views the Darwinian “processes as quantitatively insignificant to the total picture—a superficial and minor ripple upon the ocean of neutral molecular change, imposed every now and again when selection casts a stone upon the waters of evolution.” Conversely, orthodox Darwinians, “tended to argue that neutral change occupied a tiny and insignificant corner of evolution—an odd process occasionally operating in small populations at the brink of extinction anyway.”ConclusionsA major evolutionary problem that neutral theory attempts to address is, ever sinceDarwin proposed his theory of natural selection to explain evolution, most evolutionary theories have always been a matter of debate and controversy. The neutral theory was not an exception.Genetics research has progressed well beyond that in Kimura’s day, refuting neutral theory. Furthermore, because “the neutral theory is quantitative, it is able to make testable predictions.” As the late Cornell Professor William Provine and others have documented, the testable predictions for neutral theory, especially random drift, have largely failed. The evidence against neutral theory is now overwhelming, and as a result the theory has been regulated to the dustpan of history. As Alvarez-Valin noted, the predictions of neutral theory flatly do not agree with many of the scientific facts.References Behe, Michael. 2019. Darwin Devolves: New Science About DNA that Challenges Evolution. New York, NY: HarperOne.Castle, William E.. 1916. Genetics and Eugenics. A Textbook for Students of Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 4. Tomkins, Jeffrey and Jerry Bergman. 2017. Neutral model, genetic drift and the third way—A synopsis of the self-inflicted demise of the evolutionary paradigm. Journal of Creation. 31(3):94–102Duret, Laurent. 2008. Neutral theory: The null hypothesis of molecular evolution. Nature Education. 1(1):218. Alvarez-Valin, F. 2002. Neutral theory. Encyclopedia of Evolution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 815–821; Behe, 2019, p. 99. Behe, 2019, pp. 98-99. Behe, 2019, p. 100. Kimura, M. 1979. “The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution.” Scientific American. November, 241:98-129. Behe, 2019, p. 104. Coyne, Jerry. 2015. Faith vs Fact: Why Science and Religion Are Incompatible. New York, NY: Viking, pp. 139–140..Kimura, M. 1991. Recent development of the neutral theory viewed from the Wrightian tradition of theoretical population genetics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 88:5969–5973, p. 367. Kimura, M. 1991. The neutral theory of molecular evolution: a review of recent evidence. Japanese Journal of Genetics. 6(4):367-386. Kimura, 1991, p. 367.Noble, D. 2013. Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology. 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New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 1,037 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0